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Article

Positive Energy Building Definition with the Framework, Elements and Challenges of the Concept

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Tekniikantie 21, 02150 Espoo, Finland
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Academic Editor: Gerardo Maria Mauro
Energies 2021, 14(19), 6260; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196260
Received: 23 August 2021 / Revised: 16 September 2021 / Accepted: 22 September 2021 / Published: 1 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency Improvement Measures in Buildings)
Buildings account for 36% of the final energy demand and 39% of CO2 emissions worldwide. Targets for increasing the energy efficiency of buildings and reducing building related emissions is an important part of the energy policy to reach the Paris agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. While nearly zero energy buildings are the new norm in the EU, the research is advancing towards positive energy buildings, which contribute to the surrounding community by providing emission-free energy. This paper suggests a definition for positive energy building and presents the framework, elements, and challenges of the concept. In a positive energy building, the annual renewable energy production in the building site exceeds the energy demand of the building. This increases two-way interactions with energy grids, requiring a broader approach compared to zero energy buildings. The role of energy flexibility grows when the share of fluctuating renewable energy increases. The presented framework is designed with balancing two important perspectives: technical and user-centric approaches. It can be accommodated to different operational conditions, regulations, and climates. Potential challenges and opportunities are also discussed, such as the present issues in the building’s balancing boundary, electric vehicle integration, and smart readiness indicators. View Full-Text
Keywords: positive energy building; PEB; energy balance; increasing share of renewables; occupants’ well-being; socio-technical framework; user engagement positive energy building; PEB; energy balance; increasing share of renewables; occupants’ well-being; socio-technical framework; user engagement
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ala-Juusela, M.; Rehman, H.u.; Hukkalainen, M.; Reda, F. Positive Energy Building Definition with the Framework, Elements and Challenges of the Concept. Energies 2021, 14, 6260. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196260

AMA Style

Ala-Juusela M, Rehman Hu, Hukkalainen M, Reda F. Positive Energy Building Definition with the Framework, Elements and Challenges of the Concept. Energies. 2021; 14(19):6260. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196260

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ala-Juusela, Mia, Hassam u. Rehman, Mari Hukkalainen, and Francesco Reda. 2021. "Positive Energy Building Definition with the Framework, Elements and Challenges of the Concept" Energies 14, no. 19: 6260. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196260

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