Spara och bevara* bibliographic database

Rodriguez-Navarro , C and Doehne, E (1999) Salt weathering: influence of evaporation rate, supersaturation and crystallization pattern. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 24 (3). pp. 191-209. ISSN 01979337

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Micro- and macroscale experiments which document the dynamics of salt damage to porous stone have yielded data which expose weaknesses in earlier interpretations. Previously unexplained differences are found in crystal morphology, crystallization patterns, kinetics and substrate damage when comparing the growth of mirabilite (Na2SO4. 10H2O) and thenardite (Na2SO4) versus halite (NaCl). The crystallization pattern of sodium sulphate was strongly affected by relative humidity (RH), while a lesser RH effect was observed for sodium chloride. Macroscale experiments confirmed that mirabilite (crystallizing at RH > 50 per cent) and thenardite (crystallizing at RH < 50 per cent) tend to form subflorescence in highly localized areas under conditions of constant RH and temperature. This crystallization pattern was more damaging than that of halite, since halite tended to grow as efflorescence or by filling the smallest pores of the stone in a homogeneous fashion, a result which contradicts Wellman and Wilson's theoretical model of salt damage. Low RH promoted rapid evaporation of saline solutions and higher supersaturation levels, resulting in the greatest damage to the stone in the case of both sodium sulphate and sodium chloride crystallization. At any particular crystallization condition, sodium chloride tended to reach lower supersaturation levels (resulting in the crystallization of isometric crystals) and created negligible damage, while sodium sulphate reached higher supersaturation ratios (resulting in non-equilibrium crystal shapes), resulting in significant damage. ESEM showed no damage from sodium sulphate due to hydration. Instead, after water condensation on thenardite crystals, rapid dissolution followed by precipitation of mirabilite took place, resulting in stone damage by means of crystallization pressure generation. It is concluded that salt damage due to crystallization pressure appears to be largely a function of solution supersaturation ratio and location of crystallization. These key factors are related to solution properties and evaporation rates, which are constrained by solution composition, environmental conditions, substrate properties, and salt crystallization growth patterns. When combined with a critical review of salt damage literature, these experiments allow the development of a model which explains variations in damage related to combinations of different salts, substrates and environmental conditions.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Salt damage; Environmental conditions; Crystallization; Stone decay
Subjects: ?? Salt ??
English > Damage functions > Salt damage
Depositing User: Anna Samuelsson
Date Deposited: 08 May 2008 07:36
Last Modified: 04 Apr 2017 12:51

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