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Arumägi, Endrik (2015) Renovation of Historic Wooden Apartment Buildings. Doctoral thesis, Tallinn University of Technology.

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Historic buildings are an important part of the cultural heritage. In the course of time, the use of historic buildings has changed. Modern people have different requirements for comfort, function, and energy-efficiency of the buildings. The buildings in the milieu valuable areas are subject to demands set by different regulations, such as energy efficiency on the one hand and the heritage regulations on the other hand. Buildings in the milieu valuable areas are often seen as the conflict area of two different parties because of the different standpoints. The research uses the methods of large-scale field studies as well as computer simulations to analyse the performance of historic wooden apartment buildings. In historic wooden apartment buildings the measured primary energy (PE) consumption was 331 kWh/(m2·a), which is 84% higher than the minimum energy performance requirement for the buildings subject to major renovation in the energy performance regulation (180 kWh/(m2·a)). A maximum of 63% reduction was achieved by use of a pellet boiler as a heat source combined with a heat recovery ventilation system, and with all the maximal insulation measures considered. The limit set in the regulation was reached. The results showed that higher energy savings from different insulation measures combined, without considering the building service systems, do not enable increased cost-effectiveness. Combining insulation measures with building service systems broadens the possibilities and higher energy savings can be achieved in an economically viable way. The results of the economic assessment and consideration of the milieu values indicate that the cost optimal 250 kWh/(m2·a) could be reached and at current costs EPV180 kWh/(m2·a) is achievable. Indoor temperature was outside class III target values in 83% of the apartments in winter and in 25% of the apartments in summer. Indoor temperature variations reflect also the complaints concerning unstable temperature and old floors during the winter period. The indoor climate conditions differ from those in more recent apartment buildings and it is necessary to improve the indoor thermal comfort. For the hygrothermal analyses of the building envelope, the modelling curves of the indoor temperature and the moisture excess were derived from the measurement results. The probabilistic approach was applied to analyse the reliability of the interior thermal insulation as a retrofit measure. The results of the study show that a solution that involves design values with possible distributions considered is not reliable for the interior insulation. A method to assess the influence of energy retrofit measures on the building level in the milieu valuable district was introduced and tested. Different renovation packages were analysed to find possible changes in the building appearance. Independent of the starting conditions, the whole building renovation is preferred over single insulation measures that are visually easier to detect. The results show that the energy performance of the historic wooden apartment buildings can be improved significantly without large negative influence on the architectural appearance and destroying the milieu value of the district.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: historic building, renovation of wooden apartment building, energy efficiency, indoor climate, interior thermal insulation, moisture safety, milieu value
Subjects: English > Building Envelope > Insulation
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Depositing User: Susanna Carlsten
Date Deposited: 20 May 2016 15:03
Last Modified: 04 Apr 2017 11:14

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