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Hayati, Abolfazl (2017) Natural Ventilation and Air Infiltration in Large Single‑Zone Buildings: Measurements and Modelling with Reference to Historical Churches. Doctoral thesis, Högskolan i Gävle.

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Natural ventilation is the dominating ventilation process in ancient buildings like churches, and also in most domestic buildings in Sweden and in the rest of the world. These buildings are naturally ventilated via air infiltration and airing. Air infiltration is the airflow through adventitious leakages in the building envelope, while airing is the intentional air exchange through large openings like windows and doors. Airing can in turn be performed either as single-sided (one opening) or as cross flow ventilation (two or more openings located on different walls). The total air exchange affects heating energy and indoor air quality. In churches, deposition of airborne particles causes gradual soiling of indoor surfaces, including paintings and other pieces of art. Significant amounts of particles are emitted from visitors and from candles, incense, etc. Temporary airing is likely to reduce this problem, and it can also be used to adjust the indoor temperature. The present study investigates mechanisms and prediction models regarding air infiltration and open-door airing by means of field measurements, experiments in wind tunnel and computer modelling. In natural ventilation, both air infiltration and airing share the same driving forces, i.e. wind and buoyancy (indoor-outdoor temperature differences). Both forces turn out to be difficult to predict, especially wind induced flows and the combination of buoyancy and wind. In the first part of the present study, two of the most established models for predicting air infiltration rate in buildings were evaluated against measurements in three historical stone churches in Sweden. A correction factor of 0.8 is introduced to adjust one of the studied models (which yielded better predictions) for fitting the large single zones like churches. Based on field investigation and IR-thermography inspections, a detailed numerical model was developed for prediction of air infiltration, where input data included assessed level of the neutral pressure level (NPL). The model functionality was validated against measurements in one of the case studies, indicating reasonable prediction capability. It is suggested that this model is further developed by including a more systematic calibration system for more building types and with different weather conditions. Regarding airing, both single-sided and cross flow rates through the porches of various church buildings were measured with tracer gas method, as well as through direct measurements of the air velocity in a porch opening. Measurement results were compared with predictions attained from four previously developed models for single‑sided ventilation. Models that include terms for wind turbulence were found to yield somewhat better predictions. According to the performed measurements, the magnitude of one hour single-sided open-door airing in a church typically yields around 50% air exchange, indicating that this is a workable ventilation method, also for such large building volumes. A practical kind of diagram to facilitate estimation of suitable airing period is presented. The ability of the IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA-ICE) computer program to predict airing rates was examined by comparing with field measurements in a church. The programs’ predictions of single-sided airflows through an open door of the church were of the same magnitude as the measured ones; however, the effect of wind direction was not well captured by the program, indicating a development potential. Finally, wind driven air flows through porch type openings of a church model were studied in a wind tunnel, where the airing rates were measured by tracer gas. At single-sided airing, a higher flow rate was observed at higher wind turbulence and when the opening was on the windward side of the building, in agreement with field measurements. Further, the airing rate was on the order of 15 times higher at cross flow than at single-sided airing. Realization of cross flow thus seems highly recommendable for enhanced airing. Calibration constants for a simple equation for wind driven flow through porches are presented. The measurements also indicate that advection through turbulence is a more important airing mechanism than pumping. The present work adds knowledge particularly to the issues of air infiltration and airing through doors, in large single zones. The results can be applicable also to other kinds of large single-zone buildings, like industry halls, atriums and sports halls.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Natural ventilation, Airing, Air infiltration, Single-sided ventilation, Cross flow, Large single zones, Historical Churches, Model evaluation/optimization, Field measurements, Wind tunnel, Indoor climate and Energy simulation, IDA-ICE, Tracer gas technique, Pressurization test, Naturlig ventilation, Vädring, Luftinfiltration, Ensidig ventilation, Tvärdrag, Höga en-zonsbyggnader, Kulturhistoriska kyrkor, Modellutvärdering/optimering, Fältmätningar, Vindtunnel, Inomhusklimat och energisimulering, IDA-ICE, Spårgas, Trycksättningstest
Subjects: English > Climate Control
English > Simulation
Depositing User: Susanna Carlsten
Date Deposited: 27 Sep 2017 11:26
Last Modified: 27 Sep 2017 11:26

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