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Jenkins, David (2008) Technical Paper 4: Energy Modelling In Traditional Scottish Houses (EMITSH). Technical Report. Historic Scotland, Technical Conservation Group.

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When applying energy saving measures to solid wall houses, typical in many parts of Scotland, it is important to recognise that a subtly different approach might be required than that used for other sections of the housing stock. Thermal transmittances of solid sandstone, granite and similar materials are, compared to modern buildings, generally poor (depending on wall thickness) and the lack of a cavity results in cavitywall insulation not being an option. When such buildings also have an aesthetic or historical value, any visible building fabric measure (such as external insulation, many glazing options and rooftop alterations) becomes problematic. The result is, when compared to very modern dwellings, a relatively inefficient building with potentially fewer energy-saving refurbishment options. With solid wall dwellings making up a substantial part of the housing stock in Scotland (e.g. 23% of dwellings are traditional sandstone or granite construction1), this problem is symptomatic of a wider issue – a single stock-wide solution to achieving large-scale energy (and carbon) reductions in all UK housing is not possible. It is necessary to understand the specific housing type (be it a solid wall terraced flat or a modern detached house) before choosing a successful strategy to reduce the carbon emissions of a dwelling. This involves, firstly, understanding the electrical and thermal demand of the building which, as well as being affected by building size and construction, will vary with occupancy, demographic of owners and location. Secondly, the fact that many interventions might be proposed (from improving lighting and building fabric to installing onsite generation) makes it vital that the cumulative effect of interventions be accounted for. The order that these refurbishments are carried out is also important – for example, changing the boiler before reducing the thermal demand would result in a poorly-sized boiler (at a greater cost) operating at reduced efficiency. These issues are true for the entire housing stock. With the limitations on refurbishments for Scottish traditional houses in mind, the following exercise models the energy use of three specified existing building types based on three real-life case studies: a terraced flat, a rural cottage and a detached house. Once the thermal and electrical demand characteristics are defined, suitable refurbishment measures, covering all aspects of dwelling energy use, are suggested and quantified for specific scenarios. These intervention scenarios, producing a final potential carbon saving for each dwelling, are informed by previous research by Heriot-Watt University under “Tarbase”, a £1.4 million Carbon Vision Buildings project funded by the Carbon Trust and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

Item Type: Monograph (Technical Report)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Solid wall, thermal performance, traditional building, simulation, modelling
Subjects: ?? build ??
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English > Simulation
Depositing User: Anna Samuelsson
Date Deposited: 12 Mar 2012 14:48
Last Modified: 04 Apr 2017 11:22

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